Custom Solutions


Formation design, manufacture and supply tailored lighting solutions for different architectural requirements offering custom and bespoke solutions where our standard product portfolio are not suitable for the particular application. We utilise existing and new lighting technologies to ensure we meet and exceed the exacting demands of our customers.

Custom Solution Information

Luminaire luminous flux Llm:

Is the usable light of the luminaire and is the value used in lighting design calculations. This should not be confused with the lamp luminous flux (lm) which does not account for losses due to the design of the luminaire.

System efficiency Llm/W:

Is the ratio of the luminaire luminous flux (Llm) to the power input (W)

Candela (cd)

Is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540×1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1⁄683 watt per steradian.

Colour Correlated Temperature (CCT)

Is a specification of the colour appearance of the light emitted by a Light source, relating its colour to the colour of light from a reference source when heated to a particular temperature, measured in degrees Kelvin (K). The CCT rating for a light source is a general “warmth” or “coolness” measure of its appearance. However, opposite to the temperature scale, light sources with a CCT rating below 3200K are usually considered “warm” sources, while those with a CCT above 4000K are usually considered “cool” in appearance.

Colour Rendering Index (CRI)

is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colours of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. Light sources with a high CRI are desirable in colour-critical applications such as neonatal care, photography and cinematography. It is defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) as follows:

Effect of an illuminate on the colour appearance of objects by conscious or subconscious comparison with their colour appearance under a reference illuminate


Is the discomfort caused by high luminance in the field of vision.


In photometry, luminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of how much the incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception. Similarly, luminous emittance is the luminous flux per unit area emitted from a surface.


is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through, is emitted or reflected from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.

Lumen Maintenance

Is the elapsed operating time over which LED light source will be the percentage (L80 = time to 80% lumen maintenance, L70 = time to 70% lumen maintenance) of its initial light output.

Cut-off angle:

Is the angle between the horizontal plane and the point at which the light source is not directly visible yet.Half-peak divergence angle α:
In accent lighting, the half-peak divergence angle α is given rather than the beam spread angle and defined as the angle of the rotationally symmetrical luminous intensity distribution at which the luminous intensity equals half of its maximum value.

The half-peak divergence angle is given as a full angle.

Super spot < 10°
Spot 10° – 20°
Flood 21° – 45°
Wide flood 46° – 55°
Very wide flood > 55°

Beam spread angle γ:

Is the angle at which the luminous intensity drops to 1% of the maximum value Imax. It is measured from the vertical and is an important dimension in glare reducing measures

Limits of the average luminance of screens with a beam angle of >65°

Screen High                          Screen Average
illuminance                          illuminance
≥ 200 cd/m2                        ≤ 200 cd/m2
Positive polarity and
Usual requirements      ≤ 3000 cd/m2                     ≤ 1500 cd/m2

Negative polarity and
high requirements        ≤ 1500 cd/m2                     ≤ 1000 cd/m

LED: light emitting diode

The centrepiece of a typical LED is a diode that is chip-mounted in a reflector cup and held in place by a mild steel lead frame connected to a pair of electrical wires. The entire arrangement is then encapsulated in epoxy. The diode chip is generally about 0.25 mm square. When current flows across the junction of two different materials, light is produced from within the solid crystal chip. The shape, or width, of the emitted light beam is determined by a variety of factors: the shape of the reflector cup, the size of the LED chip, the shape of the epoxy lens and the distance between the LED chip and the epoxy lens. The composition of the materials determines the wavelength and colour of light. In addition to visible wavelengths, LEDs are also available in infrared wavelengths, from 830 nm to 940 nm.

LED Functionality

LEDs convert electrical energy – in other words electricity – into light. Professionals call this process “electroluminescence”. Even a small amount of energy is sufficient to make the semiconductor emit light. LEDs can switch very quickly from emitting light to not doing so. The LED light can be clocked into the MHz range. The human eye cannot register such high speeds – the light is therefore perceived as diminished, depending on the duty cycle. This effect is used for dimming LED lights through Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM).


The practice of binning is designed to maximize effective utilisation in the production of LEDs. This process is most important for luminaire manufacturers to specify and control since it has serious implications on performance, cost and lead-time. It is also important as a point of general awareness for specifiers and end-use customers so they understand how the manufacturing supply chain is ensuring high quality and consistency – specifically with regard to critical performance attributes such as light output and colour. ANS1 (American National Standards Institute) C78.377 is now the standard for chromaticity and this recommends staying within a “4-step MacAdams ellipse. In the study of colour vision, MacAdam ellipses refer to the region on a chromaticity diagram which contains all colours which are indistinguishable, to the average human eye, from the colour at the centre of the ellipse. The contour of the ellipse therefore represents the just noticeable differences of chromaticity.